關於句尾Ving

34. (26279-!-item-!-188;#058&002548)

Hundreds of species of fish generate and discharge electric currents, in bursts or as steady electric fields around their bodies, using their power either to find and attack prey, to defend themselves, or also for communicating and navigating.

(A) either to find and attack prey, to defend themselves, or also for communicating and navigating(B) either for finding and attacking prey, defend themselves, or for communication and navigation(C) to find and attack prey, for defense, or communication and navigation(D) for finding and attacking prey, to defend themselves, or also for communication and navigation(E) to find and attack prey, to defend themselves, or to communicate and navigate

133. (31602-!-item-!-188;#058&004586)

In the past several years, astronomers have detected more than 80 massive planets, most of them as large or larger than Jupiter, which circle other stars.

(A) most of them as large or larger than Jupiter, which circle(B) most of them as large or larger than Jupiter and circling(C) most of them at least as large as Jupiter, circling(D) mostly at least as large as Jupiter, which circle(E) mostly as large or larger than Jupiter, circling

老師您好,我對於句尾Ving走闡述說明的題目還是有著很大的疑惑,希冀老師能幫我解開枷鎖。以上述34題和133為例,在34題中,using以Hundreds of species of fish當邏輯主語,不僅合句尾Ving走闡述說明時要抓前面子句,也合語意Hundreds of species of fish去做use的動作;在133題的正確句中,A2在上課時是用中間插入句兩邊逗號提取,因此在133題中circling變成planets的限定。

因此我在這兩題中出現了非常大的疑惑,在句尾ving形式的題目中,應當在何種時機使用句尾Ving走闡述說明抓前句S當邏輯主語和中間插入句兩邊逗號提取變限定呢?

麻煩老師您了,感謝老師願意花時間解救~

Dustin Deng's avatar image.

您好,建議您可先閱讀這篇文章:http://dustingmat.blogspot.tw/2015/05/blog-post.html還有這篇:http://dustingmat.blogspot.tw/2016/08/sclogical-subject.html

在裡面,我主張「句尾Ving」的邏輯主詞判斷要靠句意邏輯。所以你必須先辨別在句意上 , circling other stars到底是在做哪個成分補充闡述,而實戰上的判斷就是——跟哪個成分討論的主題相同?

前面有兩個句意成分:astronomers have detected more than 80 massive planets (主題:科學家做了什麼成就)most of them at least as large as Jupiter,(主題:星球的性質為何)

這裡可以看得出來,「繞著其他星球轉」應該比較像是講星球的特色,跟後者是同一個主題,跟前者不是同一個主題。所以應該是對後者做闡述說明,要去抓後者來修飾。

同樣的句意判斷模式我在這一篇也用過,請對照參考:http://wslk.io/MhJke

Po-Hung Chen's avatar image.

謝謝老師詳盡的解釋,在此很不好意思地想在叨擾老師一題。OG2017-748題

Many house builders offer rent-to-buy programs that enable a family with insufficient savings for a conventional down payment to be able to move into new housing and to apply part of the rent to a purchase later.

(A) programs that enable a family with insufficient savings for a conventional down payment to be able to move into new housing and to apply

(B) programs that enable a family with insufficient savings for a conventional down payment to move into new housing and to apply

(C) programs; that enables a family with insufficient savings for a conventional down payment to move into new housing, to apply

(D) programs, which enables a family with insufficient savings for a conventional down payment to move into new housing, applying

(E) programs, which enable a family with insufficient savings for a conventional down payment to be able to move into new housing, applying

在(D)選項中,applying 在OG上官方解釋為錯誤抓到builders當邏輯主語,但是不是應該延伸前一句的主題做延伸說明會錯誤抓到programs當邏輯主語嗎?為何OG卻寫邏輯主語抓到builders呢?

Dustin Deng's avatar image.

這裡我不認同OG的解釋。為什麼有自信這麼說呢?因為這個正確句子跟這個選項很相像:

Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than nonunion members to be enrolled in lower-end insurance plans that impose stricter limits on medical services and [require doctors to see more patients, spending less time with each.]

而本題我們討論的D選項所形成的句子長這樣:Many house builders offer rent-to-buy programs, which [enables a family with insufficient savings for a conventional down payment to move into new housing, applying] part of the rent to a purchase later]

請比較我用[...]框起來的部分:

(1) [require doctors to see..., spending...](2) [enables a family... to move..., applying...]

其實你會發現,若是用(1)正確句的邏輯,spending修飾最接近的動作see more patients,所以跟他共用同一個動作發出者doctors。

那今天跟require sb. to V相同用法的enables sb. to V,是不是applying也要比照辦理,修飾最接近的動作move,去抓同一個動作發出者a family?

但是,如果applying part of the rent...抓到a family,那邏輯主詞不就對了嗎?(沒錯,邏輯主詞是對的。所以我不認同OG說抓錯邏輯主詞的解釋)

那既然邏輯主詞抓對了,怎麼還是錯誤答案呢?原因是這樣的:

,Ving雖然是正確答案的常見結構,但不代表能夠適用於所有句意。這裡前面的動作是move into new house...後面是 apply part of the rent。在句意上,後面並非對前面做補充,兩個動作也不是因果關係(搬了新家導致之後再付?),而是兩個先後獨立但連續的動作。在GMAT中,表先後連續動作用平行即可。因此正確選項B使用to V1 and to V2的平行:

(B) programs that enable a family with insufficient savings for a conventional down payment to move into new housing and to apply

所以D選項並沒有抓錯邏輯主詞,而是用錯修飾結構表達句意關係。

這邊附上一題句意非常相似的供您參考(句意非常非常非常相似,請仔細讀並對照):

125. The original building and loan associations were organized as limited life funds, whose members made monthly payments on their share subscriptions, then taking turns drawing on the funds for home mortgages.

(A)  subscriptions, then taking turns drawing (C)  subscriptions and then took turns drawing (正確答案)

您的問題非常用心非常好,讓回答問題的我也滿腔熱血XD請容我在將來收錄在部落格文章之中。

Po-Hung Chen's avatar image.

了解,非常感謝老師,我的用心還比不上老師您的用心,老師您真的辛苦了,不厭其煩地被我叨擾那麼久。非常榮幸我的問題能收錄在老師您的部落格文章中造福更多人,為那些跟我有相同困難者解脫枷鎖。